Legal relations are characterized by a complex composition, consist of three elements: subjects, object, and content.
Subjects are participants of a legal relationship (individuals, organizations).
An object is something that people base on legal relationships (material and spiritual goods within personal or public interests).
The content includes subjective rights and legal obligations that express the issues within the subjective relationships and the relationship between them.
Legal relations are defined as bilateral and express the relationship between the competent and compulsory parties. Bilateral nature does not indicate the number of participants in legal relations. They can be not two, but much more, but all participants in legal relations are necessarily linked to each other by mutual rights and obligations, i.e. always the right of one corresponds to the duty of another subject of the legal relationship. For example, under the loan agreement, the lender has the right to demand repayment of the debt from the borrower, and the borrower is obliged to return the appropriate amount of money (loan amount).
The legal relationship acts as an individual social connection, and the degree of individualization may be different.
Minimally individualized legal relations that arise directly from the law. In such cases, all addresses of the legal norm have common (equal) rights and freedoms or bear equal obligations regardless of any conditions. A typical example is constitutional rights and freedoms. Considering the latter in relation to an individual citizen, we translate regulations into the plane of legal relations. It is up to each citizen to determine to what extent he or she will use the opportunities available to him or her under the Constitution.
The average degree of individualization is observed when not only the subject but also the object of the legal relationship is precisely defined. For example, in the legal relationship of property, the owner and the thing the object of property are defined.
The maximum degree of individualization exists in cases where it is known exactly what actions the obligor must perform in the interests of the authorized person. Here, the object, both parties and the content of the legal relationship between them are individually established. Therefore, in accordance with the terms of the contract, a party (the contractor) undertakes to fulfil the requirements of the counterparty (the customer) and informs the customer officially and the customer undertakes to accept the result of the work and payment in the same way.
A legal attitude is a social attitude in which the exercise of a subjective right and the performance of duty are ensured by the possibility of state coercion. In most cases, the exercise of a subjective right and the performance of duty take place without the use of measures of state coercion. Where this is necessary, the party concerned shall apply the executive body (eg a court), which takes into account the legal case and correctly identifies the parties’ personal rights and legal obligations.